English Renaissance (Tudor, Elizabethan, and Jacobean)

Posted: May 16, 2011 in Uncategorized

DESIGN CHARACTERISTICS

Tudor

Late Gothic and few Renaissance characteristics freely mix, some symmetry and order are evident.

Elizabethan

Regularity, symmetry, and mixed classical and Mannerist elements characterize design. Decoration tends to be lavish. Foreign influences dominate designs.

Jacobean

Named after King James, follows Elizabethan patterns with less individuality  and more stylistic unity.

Motifs

Heraldic symbols, strapwork, roundels, portrait busts, arabesques, grotesques, obelisks, caryatids, Tudor roses, cabochones, acanthus, and vines.

ARCHITECTURE

Tudor

Become more outward looking the earlier and center on courtyards. Facades are irregular and often move in and out, roofs vary in design and height, and windows change randomly in size. Towers and battlements decorate facades.

Hampton Court Palace

Haddon Hall

Elizabethan

Horizontal emphasis and regularity on the lower portions distinguish Elizabethan buildings. Roofs have irregular silhouettes. Composed of parapets, balustrades, pinnacles, lanterns, towers, roofs, and chimneys similar to those of France. Architecture is grander then Tudor. Designs are highly  individual.

Wollaton Hall

Jacobean

Feature more stylistic unity, although eclecticism and foreign influences remain strong. Towers, turrets, and parapets define rooflines, Which are less complex.

Queens House

Private Buildings

Types

Mansions, manor houses, and town houses.

Shakespeare’s House

Moreton Old Hall

Site Orientation 

House become more outward looking throughout the period. Houses are sited in parks surrounded by lawns, terraces, and gardens, often with an intricate design of beds, paths, and fountains.

Floor Plans 

Compton Wynyates

Hardwick Hall

Materials

Brick and stone begin to supersede wood during Tudor periods.

Facades

Tudor houses are somewhat symmetrical with few classical details, feature battlements, towers, and gatehouses. Large Windows dominate Elizabethan and Jacobean facades. Rarely flat as numerous bays and pavilions create a rhythmic sequence articulated by stringcourses and pilasters.

Haddon Hall

Wollaton Hall

Windows

Stone mullions divide the large rectangular windows into as many as 16 smaller lights in Elizabethan and Jacobean architecture. Bay windows and oriel windows.

Blickling Hall

Doors

Surrounds may be arched or rectangular and surmounted by a pediment or other decorative elements. Located in the gatehouse in Tudor houses, centrally in Elizabethan, and in the frontispiece of Jacobean.

Roofs

Flat, gabled, parapet, and hipped roofs are common and several may be combined.

Blickling Hall

INTERIORS

Tudor

Largely medieval and somber in feeling. Exhibit few classical details. Grow more lively with colorful finishes and textiles.

Elizabethan

Exuberant with brilliant colors and every surface decorated with carving, painting, gilding, or plasterwork. Strapwork and grotesques are common.

Jacobean

Continue Elizabethan traditions of exuberant Mannerism.

Private Buildings

Types

Great hall, great chamber, long gallery, chapel, summer and winter parlors, and bedchambers or lodgings.

Architectural Details

Usually derive from pattern books and are often Mannerist in character.

Color

Feature highly saturated, even garish, colors in textiles and finishes. White walls are common if there are hangings. May be blue or green. Paneling generally is painted stone color or brown to resemble wood. Ceilings are white or blue.

Lighting

Artificial lighting is minimal consisting of chandeliers or lanterns, wall sconces, and candle sticks.

Floors

Stone, Brick, marble, and wood are common. Hard plaster and tiles are used occasionally. Oak in wood planks or parquet, dominates wood flooring. Woven matting replaces loose rushes as floor coverings.

Walls

Paneling is usually oak. Early panels are small and plain or with carved linenfold, Gothic motifs, or Romayne work. Panels become larger with more elaborate carving, and the wood left natural or painted.

Chimneypiece

Focal point in all periods.

Windows

Rectangular, bays, or oriels. Glass is expensive, so horn or blinds of cloth or canvas substitute in lesser houses.

Doors

Generally match wainscoting. In larger houses, pilasters or columns supporting an entablature often flank doors.

Textiles

Provide color, warmth, and comfort to wealthy and royal interiors in all periods.

Ceilings

Some Tudors have medieval trusses. others are beamed or coffered. During the Elizabethan pargework appears. Earliest designs are small and geometric, but grow more complex.

FURNISHINGS AND DECORATIVE ARTS

Tudor

Similar to medieval furniture in form and decoration.

Elizabethan

Massive with heavy proportions, rich carving, and inlay. Shows strong Flemish influence and classical elements.

Jacobean

Continues Elizabethan tradition, but is simpler with more formal and naturalistic carving.

Public Buildings

Types

Seating, tables, storage pieces, and beds.

Distinctive Features

Heavy, elaborately carved, bulbous support defines Elizabethan and Jacobean. Early examples are large, but decrease in size and amount of embellishment. Legs may be turned, chamfered, or fluted.

Relationships

Have little furniture, and it lines the walls when not in use.

Materials

Most is of oak, few Jacobean are walnut.

Seating

Chairs, Settees, daybeds, stools, benches, and settles

Chairs

Turned, X-form, and wainscot chair. The farthingale chair appears at the end of the 16th century.

Turned Chair

Wainscot Chair

X-frame

Glastonbury Chair

Tables

Permanent table tops replace removable ones, and the drawtop is introduced.

Storage

Chests, cupboards, and chests of drawers.

Beds

Wooden boxes covered and draped with fabric or draped four-posters.

Bed Hangings 

Rich hangings not only give warmth, but also demonstrate rank and status.

Textiles

Silk, wool, damask, or velvet, gold or silver lace, embroidery, braid, cord, and tassels.

Decorative Arts

Tableware is made of wood, silver, horn, or glass. Tin-glazed earthenware, saltcellars, scones, plates, ewers and basins, flagons, drinking vessels, spoons, spice boxes, and snuffers. Others include portraits, paintings, and armor. Oriental rugs, porcelains, crewelwork, and palampores.

Flagons

ewers and basins

Palampore

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