Late Gothic and few Renaissance characteristics freely mix, some symmetry and order are evident.
Regularity, symmetry, and mixed classical and Mannerist elements characterize design. Decoration tends to be lavish. Foreign influences dominate designs.
Named after King James, follows Elizabethan patterns with less individuality and more stylistic unity.
Heraldic symbols, strapwork, roundels, portrait busts, arabesques, grotesques, obelisks, caryatids, Tudor roses, cabochones, acanthus, and vines.
Become more outward looking the earlier and center on courtyards. Facades are irregular and often move in and out, roofs vary in design and height, and windows change randomly in size. Towers and battlements decorate facades.
Hampton Court Palace
Horizontal emphasis and regularity on the lower portions distinguish Elizabethan buildings. Roofs have irregular silhouettes. Composed of parapets, balustrades, pinnacles, lanterns, towers, roofs, and chimneys similar to those of France. Architecture is grander then Tudor. Designs are highly individual.
Feature more stylistic unity, although eclecticism and foreign influences remain strong. Towers, turrets, and parapets define rooflines, Which are less complex.
Mansions, manor houses, and town houses.
Moreton Old Hall
House become more outward looking throughout the period. Houses are sited in parks surrounded by lawns, terraces, and gardens, often with an intricate design of beds, paths, and fountains.
Brick and stone begin to supersede wood during Tudor periods.
Tudor houses are somewhat symmetrical with few classical details, feature battlements, towers, and gatehouses. Large Windows dominate Elizabethan and Jacobean facades. Rarely flat as numerous bays and pavilions create a rhythmic sequence articulated by stringcourses and pilasters.
Stone mullions divide the large rectangular windows into as many as 16 smaller lights in Elizabethan and Jacobean architecture. Bay windows and oriel windows.
Surrounds may be arched or rectangular and surmounted by a pediment or other decorative elements. Located in the gatehouse in Tudor houses, centrally in Elizabethan, and in the frontispiece of Jacobean.
Flat, gabled, parapet, and hipped roofs are common and several may be combined.
Largely medieval and somber in feeling. Exhibit few classical details. Grow more lively with colorful finishes and textiles.
Exuberant with brilliant colors and every surface decorated with carving, painting, gilding, or plasterwork. Strapwork and grotesques are common.
Continue Elizabethan traditions of exuberant Mannerism.
Great hall, great chamber, long gallery, chapel, summer and winter parlors, and bedchambers or lodgings.
Usually derive from pattern books and are often Mannerist in character.
Feature highly saturated, even garish, colors in textiles and finishes. White walls are common if there are hangings. May be blue or green. Paneling generally is painted stone color or brown to resemble wood. Ceilings are white or blue.
Artificial lighting is minimal consisting of chandeliers or lanterns, wall sconces, and candle sticks.
Stone, Brick, marble, and wood are common. Hard plaster and tiles are used occasionally. Oak in wood planks or parquet, dominates wood flooring. Woven matting replaces loose rushes as floor coverings.
Paneling is usually oak. Early panels are small and plain or with carved linenfold, Gothic motifs, or Romayne work. Panels become larger with more elaborate carving, and the wood left natural or painted.
Focal point in all periods.
Rectangular, bays, or oriels. Glass is expensive, so horn or blinds of cloth or canvas substitute in lesser houses.
Generally match wainscoting. In larger houses, pilasters or columns supporting an entablature often flank doors.
Provide color, warmth, and comfort to wealthy and royal interiors in all periods.
Some Tudors have medieval trusses. others are beamed or coffered. During the Elizabethan pargework appears. Earliest designs are small and geometric, but grow more complex.
FURNISHINGS AND DECORATIVE ARTS
Similar to medieval furniture in form and decoration.
Massive with heavy proportions, rich carving, and inlay. Shows strong Flemish influence and classical elements.
Continues Elizabethan tradition, but is simpler with more formal and naturalistic carving.
Seating, tables, storage pieces, and beds.
Heavy, elaborately carved, bulbous support defines Elizabethan and Jacobean. Early examples are large, but decrease in size and amount of embellishment. Legs may be turned, chamfered, or fluted.
Have little furniture, and it lines the walls when not in use.
Most is of oak, few Jacobean are walnut.
Chairs, Settees, daybeds, stools, benches, and settles
Turned, X-form, and wainscot chair. The farthingale chair appears at the end of the 16th century.
Permanent table tops replace removable ones, and the drawtop is introduced.
Chests, cupboards, and chests of drawers.
Wooden boxes covered and draped with fabric or draped four-posters.
Rich hangings not only give warmth, but also demonstrate rank and status.
Silk, wool, damask, or velvet, gold or silver lace, embroidery, braid, cord, and tassels.
Tableware is made of wood, silver, horn, or glass. Tin-glazed earthenware, saltcellars, scones, plates, ewers and basins, flagons, drinking vessels, spoons, spice boxes, and snuffers. Others include portraits, paintings, and armor. Oriental rugs, porcelains, crewelwork, and palampores.
ewers and basins